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贝壳研究院:月入两万才能在北京“整租自由”

2021-6-23 15:29| 发布者: wangxuejing1109| 查看: 22939| 评论: 14

摘要: 又是一年毕业季,对刚走出象牙塔的学子们来说,选择返回家乡、还是奔赴一线奋斗,是关乎未来发展的必选题。而不管身处何方,在熟悉或陌生的城市中觅得安居之所,是开启人生新征程的第一步。 6月22日,贝壳研究院发 ...

又是一年毕业季,对刚走出象牙塔的学子们来说,选择返回家乡、还是奔赴一线奋斗,是关乎未来发展的必选题。而不管身处何方,在熟悉或陌生的城市中觅得安居之所,是开启人生新征程的第一步。

6月22日,贝壳研究院发布《2021年毕业季租房洞察报告》,旨在解答毕业生所关心的租房话题,哪个城市租房压力大、如何实现整租自由、怎样的房源最受学子青睐?基于4600份有效问卷,报告对类似问题进行了详细阐述。

《报告》表示,一线及新一线城市仍是毕业青年的首选就业城市,但这些城市租房压力不尽相同,北京、上海、深圳、杭州、珠海及广州处于“压力区间”, 房租收入比不低于30%,长沙在新一线城市中租赁负担最低。

在租金水平遥遥领先的北京,月收入过两万,才能实现“整租自由”。为减轻初入社会的压力,与人合租是多数毕业生的选择。不过,北京合租单间面积仅约13.8平方米,“开门即是床”是毕业青年面临的普遍现状。

“开门就是床”,北上深租房负担最重

教育部数据显示,2021届全国普通高校毕业生总规模将首次突破900万,达到909万,较2020年的874万同比增加35万,同时,叠加新冠肺炎及归国留学生的“归国潮”影响,2021年就业市场依然面临挑战。

对毕业生群体来说,选择一座有发展前途的城市去打拼,不仅要考虑就业机会、职场环境、薪酬水平等,租住环境是否“友好”同样是重要因素。

贝壳研究院统计发现,2021年度毕业季租金指数TOP10城市分别为北京、上海、深圳、杭州、广州、珠海、南京、苏州、厦门及东莞。该数值以整租月度套均租金为基础进行标准化处理,指数越高表示租金越高。

经济基本面较好,产业基础雄厚、对人才吸引力较强的城市,租金水平也相对较高。数据显示,一线城市月度套均租金约4394元,新一线城市约2097元,二线城市约1794元,租金变化与城市能级表现出强相关性。

不过,抛开收入论租金并不尽科学。如果将毕业生薪酬纳入统计,北京、上海、深圳、杭州、珠海及广州等地租房压力较大,房租收入比不低于30%。按照城市级别看,一线城市房租收入比约39.23,新一线城市约24.09,二线城市约22.58。

在北京,月收入达到多少,才能实现“整租自由”?贝壳研究院给出的结论是:2.1万。在新一线城市杭州,门槛同样不低,月收入需达到1.5万。对独立打拼的青年来说,轻松整租并非易事。

选择合租,才是毕业生“无奈”又“现实”的选择。从合租单间面积看,2021年毕业季期间,深圳、北京的合租面积最低,深圳仅约为12.3平,北京约为13.8平。奋斗在一线城市,“开门即是床”并非只是玩笑话。

学子青睐一线城市,租金接受上限3000元

报告显示,凭借优质的资源及产业基础,北京、广州、上海等一线城市仍是毕业生的首选就业城市。不过,深圳从2020年的第四调整为2021年的第六,主要原因之一就是居住负担相对较高,对人才吸引形成消极影响。

新一线城市中,成都排名涨幅最明显,取代武汉成为毕业生首选的就业城市。与此同时,包括成都在内的“北上广深”及杭州等地更能留住人才,选择同城就业的毕业生占比较高,跨城就业的青年也多奔赴这些城市。

究其原因,优质的城市基本面,是这些地方吸引人才的重要因素。贝壳研究院调研发现,在选择就业城市时,看好城市发展、优质的工作机会、环境宜居生活舒适等是毕业生优先考虑的因素,且重要度较上年有所提高。

不过,刚走出校门的学子,对租金水平尤为敏感。报告显示,92.3%的受访者可接受的租金范围在3000元以下,其中42%集中在1001~2000元。在一线城市,合租单间租金已达2000元,这意味着他们很少会选择整租。

值得注意的是,如果将收入纳入考虑范围,城市能级越高,接受高房价收入比的毕业生占比越高。数据显示,一线城市接受30%及以上的占比可达到17.44%,远高于新一线城市的10.46%及二线城市的11.09%。

目前,一线城市租金主流的支付方式包括月付、双月付、季付、半年付及年付等,占比最高的季付通常需要押一付三,即支付四个月房租。以北京为例,2021年毕业季期间合租单间约2360元,首次租房需支付近一万元。

对青年毕业群体而言,这笔租金从何而来?贝壳研究院调研结果显示,44.9%的受访者租金收入来自“个人工资收入”,25.02%受访者来自“父母支持”,此外部分单位也提供了员工福利,可以提供租房补助,该部分占比达到16.88%。

线上找房成主流,合租生活“痛点”多

随着各行业数字化逐渐推进,毕业生租房时也不再局限于传统渠道。调研结果显示,45.5%的受访者通过“线上房源网站及APP”获取房源,该占比远高于其他因素。借助视频、VR带看等方式,毕业青年找房难度日趋降低。

基于毕业青年可接受的租金范围,合租成为首要的租赁方式。调研结果显示,35.8%的受访者首次租房会选择合租,只有15.1%会选择整租。在合租对象选择上,33.5%的受访者会选择与同学合租,其次为熟知的朋友、同事等。

在房源选择上,32.8%的受访者会选择31~50平米大小,其次是11~30平米,占比约26.5%。对选择整租的群体而言,理想户型是“一室一厅”,占比约45.4%;其次是单间配套,占比约30.1%,开间型户型对单身青年也较为理想。

除了考虑租金,在什么地方租房还涉及职住均衡、生活配套等问题。调研结果显示,在工作地点周边租房是毕业青年最关注的因素,占比约为41.94%;其次,轨道站点附近(交通便利性)也备受关注,占比约为27.46%。

按贝壳研究院对租赁圈层的定义,圈层越高(距市中心越近),租金一般相对较高。为降低生活成本,毕业生倾向于避开市中心租住,不过43.6%的受访者可接受通勤时长在1小时,33.2%在半小时范围内,1.5小时及以上占比较低。

虽然“理想”较为丰满,但在现实中,毕业青年面临的租住痛点仍然不少。报告显示,48.83%的受访者称“虚假房源信息”是最大痛点,其次则为“由于换工作、房租上涨等原因导致频繁搬家”及“安全隐患”等。

在合租生活中,“不讲卫生”、“不爱干净”、“脏乱差”等生活习惯,以及“吵闹”、“噪音”、“抽烟”、“熬夜”等影响正常休息的行为,都是毕业青年难以忍受的行为。“侵犯隐私”、“带异性过夜”也是其主要吐槽点之一。


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