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土地出让收入划转为何受热议

2021-6-21 10:37| 发布者: jijinduoduo| 查看: 8799| 评论: 13

摘要: 土地与劳动、资本一样,是经济增长不可或缺的要素。既要客观认识土地出让对地方经济增长起到的作用,又要对其引起的负面影响保持警惕,采取措施。各地应抓紧转变发展方式,优化产业结构,实现经济社会高质量发展和更 ...

土地与劳动、资本一样,是经济增长不可或缺的要素。既要客观认识土地出让对地方经济增长起到的作用,又要对其引起的负面影响保持警惕,采取措施。各地应抓紧转变发展方式,优化产业结构,实现经济社会高质量发展和更高水平均衡。

最近,财政部等四部门发布通知,将国有土地使用权出让收入划转税务部门征收。一时间,“土地财政”话题再次备受热议。

目前,有部分城市尤其是大城市房价偏高,一个重要因素是地价高,以至土地出让收入占地方财政总收入比例较高。也就是说,一旦财政吃紧,就可能会有地方政府按捺不住“卖地”冲动。

还有一个原因是,目前有些地方债务风险不小。就全国总体而言,2020年政府债务余额占GDP比重(负债比)为45.8%,低于国际通行的60%警戒线。不过,个别省份债务规模大,债务率大幅高出警戒线。当地方债务走高、财政开支加大,有些地方便可能打起土地主意,以土地为抵押、寅吃卯粮,影响地方平稳健康持续发展。

上述原因在一定程度上反映出一些地方经济结构失调,对于土地和房地产过分倚重,可持续发展和抗风险能力弱等问题,必须引起有关方面高度重视,及时加以解决。同时,对于土地出让收入在经济发展中扮演的角色还需要全面看待,辩证分析。

如今,我国经济规模已迈上100万亿元台阶,是世界第二大经济体。回想2000年时,我们还曾为中国经济突破10万亿元大关、跃升至世界第六大经济体欢呼雀跃。几十年的时间,中国经济创造了举世瞩目的增长奇迹,被全球经济学家公认为经济史上的杰出成就。其中一个观点是,在地方经济竞争发展之中,与土地相关的财政收入推动了我国工业化、城镇化进程,是中国基础设施超常供给能力形成的一大关键,这对快速改善城乡面貌、提高生产生活条件是一个有力支撑。

因此,既要客观认识土地出让对地方经济增长起到的作用,又要对其引起的负面影响保持警惕,采取措施。土地与劳动、资本一样,是经济增长不可或缺的要素。1998年,全国土地出让收入为507亿元,2020年,这一数字跃升至8.4万亿元,增长约165倍。站在这个时间节点,此次土地出让收入划转税务部门征收,具有标志性意义,将使土地出让收入征收更为规范,防范地方政府无序甚至违规出让国有土地使用权等问题。

同时,这也为地方财政逐步减少对土地的依赖埋下伏笔。各地应抓紧转变发展方式,优化产业结构,更多考虑环境治理和民生改善,努力实现经济社会高质量发展和更高水平均衡。(经济日报 黄晓芳)

来源:中国经济网


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